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托福考試中讓人掉以輕心的“言外之意…”
2019-02-26 09:40   作者:新航道   閱讀量:

  說起托福考試,大家一定不會陌生。自上世紀八十年代進入中國以來,去美國留學的學生要做的The first件事,就是準備托福考試。

  這個考試考的很全面,聽說讀寫一樣不落,但是當你對它有所了解之后,你會發現聽力不敢說是最重要的,那也一定是第二重要的。

  聽力,口語,寫作三個部分都在考察聽力能力,不管是細節,還是主旨,亦或是言外之意,只有考生做不對的,沒有ETS想不到的。

 

  根據官方指南(OG)的敘述,聽力考的是兩個基本能力:

  ● 一是字面意思,涉及細節題,主旨題等;

  ● 二是非字面意思,涉及作者意圖題,重聽題等等。

  要搞定The first個方面,提高聽力能力是The best解;要搞定第二個方面,僅憑聽力能力,嚴謹的說,是不夠的。尤其是作者態度題出現在很多講座或者對話的最后一題,看起來一成不變,人畜無害,實則花樣挺多,特會給自己加戲。

  如下,讓我們來淺析作者態度題。

 

  The first,作者態度題典型提問方式:

  1、What is the professor's opinion of ?

  2、What can be inferred about the student when he/she says this (reply)?

  3、What is the professor's attitude about/toward...?

  4、What does the man/woman mean when he/she says this?

  ※ tip:作者態度題的題干里多半有opinion,attitude這類詞,此外有的問法里面會有infer,imply 這類詞,需注意和其他題型作區分。

 

  第二,作者態度題的答案常常出現在:

  1、結尾

  2、各類假設,理論的后面

  3、師生對話處

  4、語調變化的地方

  ※ tip:在這些出題可能性很高的地方,大家需要非常仔細地聽文本。

 

  第三,作者態度題的答題技巧:

  作者態度題的解題技巧與語境理解有關系,不要拘泥于一句話的表面意思。思路大致可分為兩種:

  A. 為在文中直接表明觀點態度

  1. 例如通過語音語調判斷

  (上揚表示情緒驚訝,下降通常表示懷疑態度):

  ※ tip:這類題目需要大家從語調上做出判斷,TPO 里面有不少這樣的題。

  TPO16 L4 (Script)

  ● Student

  They actually broke them? That showed good judgment, real foresight, didn't it?

  ● Professor

  Yes, if only they had known.

 

  17. What does the student imply when she says this?

  A.It is unfortunate that people in the 19th century destroyed old stained-glass windows.

  B.Stained-glass windows made in the 19th century are more beautiful than those made earlier.

  C.It was necessary for people in the 19th century to break stained-glass windows.

  D.Stained-glass windows made in the 19th century are more valuable today than windows in previous centuries.

  解析:學生在原文說到 That showed good judgment, real foresight, didn't it? 的時候,最后的語調很明顯是上揚的,屬于反話正話,此外,教授的回應也呼應了學生的負面態度,所以對應答案 A。

 

  2. 通過形容詞判斷:

  TPO23 L1 (Script)

  Well, scientists have recently analyzed the inscriptions on the mechanism and re-examine the other cargo in the ship wreck, and the evidence makes an absolute casethat this device dates back to ancient Greece somewhere between 150 and 100 B.C.E. What makes that so fascinating is that before we found the Antikythera Mechanism, the earliest device we had that could track the Sun and moon like this was invented over 1,000 years later. So when this was first found, people literally would not believe it. Some of my colleagues insisted it had to have been made well after 100 B.C.E. But this physical evidence was conclusive. It was that old.

 

  8. What is the professor's attitude about the proposition that the Antikythera Mechanism is over two thousand years old?

  A.She is confident that the dating is accurate.

  B.She is sure the dating will be revised in the future.

  C.She is surprised that the dating remains inconclusive.

  D.She believes that additional testing will be needed to confirm the dating.

  解析:作者在原文提到 the evidence makes an absolute case that this device dates back to ancient Greece somewhere between 150 and 100 B.C.E.后面在轉折詞but 后繼續提到 the physical evidence is conclusive. 也就是”absolutely, conclusive “ 這些詞都體現出作者對于它的年齡分析是肯定的。當然professor在陳述這些情況的時候語音語調有明顯的升華,( 暗示著大家這是一個出題點,速記的時候要有敏感度)。 因此答案選A。

  ※ tip:類似的形容詞,能夠表達作者態度的,這里略作補充:

  ●肯定態度 (positive): favorable, approval, enthusiastic, supportive

  ●否定態度(negative):disapproval, dissatisfied, objection, opposition,critical, compromising, concerned

  ●懷疑態度 (doubtful): suspicious, incredulous, skeptical, questionable

  ●客觀態度(objective):neutral,impartial,disinterested,unprejudiced,unbiased, detached

 

  B. 間接表示觀點態度

  ※ tip:有的時候,說話人會通過委婉的方式表達自己的觀點,目的是為了體現出自己的觀點顯得更加公允,不偏激。這種觀點態度一般是通過迂回的句型表現出來。

  TPO24 L1 (Script)

  I heard some great examples of this on the television program on crocodiles last week. Anyone catch it? It had a few interesting bits. But you know, uh, you have to be careful, think critically. Sometimes I don't know where these shows find their experts.

 

  9. What is the professor's opinion about the television program that she mentions?

  A She is concerned about the accuracy of some of the information the experts provided.

  B She is hopeful that the class will be able to discuss it.

  C.She thinks it was overly critical of some recent theories about crocodiles.

  D.She is surprised that it did not include more examples of crocodile communication.

  解析:從前面幾句話來看,作者覺得電視中關于鱷魚的節目是有點意思的。但是之后她的語氣有明顯的停頓 (暗示出題點),并在轉折之后表示希望同學們careful,critically,即仔細點,犀利一些,想想這些節目從哪兒找來的專家,這體現出作者對這些節目的質疑,因此答案是A選項,值得注意的是,此題中的C選項雖然有critical 這個詞,但是它的意思是指“電視節目過于 critical了,有悖于原文的意思,不能選。

  綜上所述,我們在解決作者態度題的時候:

  ● 一是要學會預先判斷出題點

  ● 二是要關注語調,表態度的形容詞

  ● 三是要仔細分析選項,避開陷阱。

  希望這些能夠給讀者帶來一些幫助。

 

 

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