Passage 1 小說
Liz’s biology professor sent an email asking her to meet。
meeting 之前的一堂三個小時的生物課，LIz 以為是自己最后一次上課，要和實驗室里的各種設備say goodbye了。她覺得professor 是這種人：show her frustration with kindness. 當你打碎儀器的時候，她用很高的音調說“It’s okay”, 你打掃碎玻璃的時候她就在旁邊，幫你看著哪里有沒掃的玻璃，等你掃完了，掃帚放好了，她又看見了碎玻璃，會溫柔地讓你重新拿掃帚掃（呼應前文刻畫的professor追求細節的個性）
課程結束了，Liz忐忑地等所有人走了，去找教授。professor 問她喜歡生物課嗎？她說喜歡。問她的夢想是什么？LIz竟然為了討好教授說相當科學家，但她真正的夢想是醫生。故事真相是——教授又一個summer research position 想推薦liz 去.
“Make Your Home Among Strangers”
BY Capo Cruet
I scanned my mind for what this could be about. Had I left a supply closet or fridge unlocked? Had I open centrifuged one of the specimens she’d asked me to look at when it was supposed to be closed centrifuged? Had she glanced over my shoulder
at my class notes and seen the list of embarrassing questions only I seemed to have and which I’d scribbled under the heading Things to Look Up Later? I’d been so careful around her so far, hoping to make up for all the times I raised my hand and revealed how little I knew, all the times she caught me pretty much fondling the equipment —the elegant pipettes, the test tube racks that kept everything snug and in place, the magical autoclave incinerating all evidence of use and making everything perfect over and over again. It could’ve been any or all of these things: she was so smart that I was certain she’d put these observations together and conclude, long before I figured it out, that though I was eager and good at keeping contamination at bay, I wasn’t cut out for the hard sciences. I wrote her back, composing my e-mail in a word processing program first
to make sure the green squiggly line of grammar impropriety didn’t show up under every clause, and confirmed I could meet with her Monday at noon, right after class. She wrote back a cryptic, That will be more than fine.
The three hours of that week’s lab class felt like a goodbye. I stacked each petridish as if it were the last time I’d be allowed to handle those delicate circles of glass. I swished saline solution for longer than was needed, looked at the agar coating the bottom of plates as if its nutrients were intended for me and were about to be withheld. When a question popped into my head, I kept my hand down and didn’t even bother to write it in my notebook.
I watched Professor Kaufmann for clues all class but saw nothing, though she’d already proven herself good at masking frustration with kindness. You could drop an entire tray of beakers, and she would smile and in a too-high voice say, That’s OK! I sometimes thought I was the only one in the class who saw through her, could tell how very upset she was at all that shattered glass on the floor: I knew it from the way she’d
say Hmmm as she accosted the student culprit with a broom and stood over them, pointing out a missed shard here, a tiny speck there. She’d wait until they put the broom
away before noticing another piece, then instruct them to go back to the closet and bring the broom again.
I approached her lab bench once everyone had left. She was scribbling something
on some graph paper, and I glanced at what she wrote once I was closer. Whatever
it was, it was in German— probably not a good sign— and it was underneath a series
of equations that meant nothing to me and which were in no way related to our
—Liz! she said. Oh, super! Come here, please!
She stood and let me have her seat. I sat there for a good minute, watched her keep working as if she hadn’t just asked me to sit down. Her pen dug into the paper and I wondered if she had two brains—wondered if there were a way I could split my own mind like that, be in one place but let my mind hang out wherever it wanted.
She slapped the pen down on her notebook, and without even apologizing for the awkward three or so minutes we’d been right next to each other but not speaking, she said, Thank you for staying after class. I see you’re eager
to know what this is about.
—Yes, I said. I tried to keep my back straight; I found trying to maintain good posture more painful than just slouching. Even seated on her high stool, I was still looking up at her. I said, Is everything okay?
—Yes, of course. Thank you for asking.
I figured then that I should stop talking lest I incriminate myself, but she
smiled at me and nodded as if I’d kept speaking, as if I was saying something at that very
—Yes, so, she said. You are enjoying the lab so far?
—I love it, I blurted out. It’s my favorite class this semester.
—Super! she said. That’s super.
She nodded some more. After a few additional seconds of painful silence and sustained eye contact she asked, Are you interested in becoming a research
I thought I wanted to be a doctor, but that didn’t seem
like the right answer.
—Yes, I said. I am.
—Good, super. Because there is something you should do then, a program.
She slipped a hand beneath her pad of graph paper and slid out a glossy
folder. I closed my eyes, not wanting to look at it: here it was, the remedial program for
students needing extra help, forced in front of me like that list of campus resources I’d
printed out last semester as my only hope. The folder was white with a crimson stripe
down the front of it, a gold logo embossed at its center.
—This is connected to my research group. It’s a summer position at our field laboratory off the coast of Santa Barbara, in California. You would be perfect for it.
Passage 2 歷史
a speech of franklin in 1787
Two passions of men that have great impact, 一種是ambition, 第二是the pursuit of money and power. If you show a man a post of power, 他會不遺余力地得到它。接著作者用英國政府中存在這樣的職位競爭，導致conflict不斷來支持前面的觀點。（此處考了一道尋證題）
第二段以問題開頭—是哪種人會不遺余力獲取權力金錢呢？一定不是愛好和平，humble, patient這一類人；卻是ambitious, 有欲望的人。
第三段講the conflict between the governing and the governed, 人民越不想被統治，統治階級對權力和金錢的需求和欲望越大，他要錢去討好支持他的黨派們以鞏固自己的地位，錢肯定要從人民稅收中來，這是主要矛盾點。
“A Speech that Benjamin Franklin delivered to the United States Constitution Convention”
BY Benjamin Franklin
And of what kind are the men that will strive for this profitable preeminence, through all the bustle of cabal, the heat of contention, the infinite mutual abuse of parties, tearing to pieces the best of characters? It will not be the wise and moderate, the lovers of peace and good order, the men fittest for the trust. It will be the bold and the violent, the men of strong passions and indefatigable activity in their selfish pursuits. These will thrust themselves into your government and be your rulers. And these, too, will be mistaken in the expected happiness of their situation, for their vanquished competitors, of the same spirit, and from the same motives, will perpetually be endeavoring to distress their administration, thwart their measures, and render them odious to the people.
Besides these evils, sir, tho we may set out in the beginning with moderate salaries, we shall find that such will not be of long continuance. Reasons will never be wanting for proposed augmentations; and there will always be a party for giving more to the rulers, that the rulers may be able, in return, to give more to them. Hence, as all history informs us, there has been in every state and kingdom a constant kind of warfare between the governing and the governed; the one striving to obtain more for its support, and the other to pay less. And this has alone occasioned great convulsions, actual civil wars, ending either in dethroning of the princes or enslaving of the people.
Generally, indeed, the ruling power carries its point, and we see the revenues of princes constantly increasing, and we see that they are never satisfied, but always in want of more. The more the people are discontented with the oppression of taxes, the greater need the prince has of money to distribute among his partizans, and pay the troops that are to suppress all resistance, and enable him to plunder at pleasure. There is scarce a king in a hundred who would not, if he could, follow the example of Pharaoh—get first all the people’s money, then all their lands, and then make them and their children servants for ever.
Passage 3 科學
“the greatest show on earth: the evidence of revolution”
一種名為ps 的動物，originally from 一個地方名為pk, 在另外一個叫PM 的地方是不存在的，1971年的時候，科學家把一部分ps 這種動物運到PM。2008年再比較兩個物種的時候，科學家預測PM上的PS和PK上的PS是一樣的。（緊接著后面的內容出了尋證題）但是這樣推測是沒有道理的，因為不管怎樣這36年PK上的PS一定也是進化了的，有改變的。
We investigated thepossible role of variation in predation pressure in the phenotypic divergenceof two island populations of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis sicula. In 1971,ten adult specimens from the island of Pod Kopiˇste (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)were transported to the island of Pod Mrcˇaru, 3.5 km east, where they foundeda new population. Although the two islands resemble each other in generalphysiognomy (size, elevation, microclimate) and in the absence of terrestrialpredators, lizards from the newly established population are now on averagelarger and have shorter hind limbs. They also exhibit lower maximal sprintspeed as measured on a racetrack, and fatigue faster when chased in a torustrack. In the field, lizards from the original population of Pod Kopiˇsterespond to a simulated predatory attack by fleeing at larger approach distancesand by running further from the predator than lizards from Pod Mrcˇaru. Thesechanges in morphology, behaviour and performance may result from the relaxedpredation intensity on the latter island.
Passage 4 社科
The passage is adapted from Wray Herbert: On second thought: outsmarting your mind’s hard-wired habits.
后面的段落引用研究人員Adam Altman and Daniel Oppenheimer設計的三個實驗證明上述結論，The first個實驗是給被實驗人1 dollar和1 susan B，讓其對生活常用品，比如紙巾，筆等進行評估價值， 盡管兩者在價值上相同，但是由于人們只對一美元熟悉，普遍對一美元的購買力賦予更高價值。
為了進一步證明的普遍性，實驗人員給了被實驗著2 dollars （現實中不存在）和2 shinges, 雖然2美元上印著美國開國元勛杰弗遜的頭像，人們由于對其不熟悉，給予其的購買力價值相對較低。
第三個實驗對人們對與熟悉度的偏好有個更進一步的驗證。給予被實驗人2組字體的物品清單，一組較為熟悉，另一組不清晰，被實驗者做出了和上述兩個實驗相同的結果，這就是Adam Altman and Daniel Oppenheimer 提出的 fluency heuristic，強調familiarity導致人們習慣性賦予其較高價值。
文中引用了Adam Altman and Daniel Oppenheimer的文章：easy on the mind, easy on the money (psychonomic society)中的表格證明了熟悉度增加事物價值。
Passage 5 科學雙篇
Passage1：Robert Hazen的Genesis: The Scientific Quest for Life's Origin
在以前的知識體系下，DNA和Protein是雞生蛋蛋生雞的關系：DNA攜帶信息，protein制造和表達信息，根據對RNA的The latest研究發現，RNA ribozymes可能同時具備這兩項功能，由此產生了RNA World theory.
Passage 2：取自university of North Carolina School of Medicine的文章biochemists resurrect: molecular fossils: findings challenge the attempts about origins of life（發表在sciencedaily上）
其次，沒有證據表明RNA ribozymes在幾十億年前存在。Carter教授使用The latest技術進行了研究。人類基因密碼由兩大modern day enzymes族系轉譯。Carter教授發現這兩大族系由共有的identical cores來產生molecular fossil， 教授將其命名為Urzymes. 并推斷出此物質可能是古時早期生命信息的的存在狀態。
“Molecular fossils: findings challenge the attempts about origins of life”
BY University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Now, research from UNC School of Medicine biochemist Charles Carter, PhD, appearing in the September 13 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, offers an intriguing new view on how life began. Carter's work is based on lab experiments during which his team recreated ancient protein enzymes that likely played a vital role in helping create life on Earth. Carter's finding flies in the face of the widely-held theory that Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) self-replicated without the aid of simple proteins and eventually led to life as we know it.
In the early 1980s, researchers found that ribozymes -- RNA enzymes -- act as catalysts. It was evidence that RNA can be both the blueprints and the chemical catalysts that put those blueprints into action. This finding led to the "RNA World" hypothesis, which posits that RNA alone triggered the rise of life from a sea of molecules.
But for the hypothesis to be correct, ancient RNA catalysts would have had to copy multiple sets of RNA blueprints nearly as accurately as do modern-day enzymes. That's a hard sell; scientists calculate that it would take much longer than the age of the universe for randomly generated RNA molecules to evolve sufficiently to achieve the modern level of sophistication. Given Earth's age of 4.5 billion years, living systems run entirely by RNA could not have reproduced and evolved either fast or accurately enough to give rise to the vast biological complexity on Earth today.
"The RNA world hypothesis is extremely unlikely," said Carter. "It would take forever."
Moreover, there's no proof that such ribozymes even existed billions of years ago. To buttress the RNA World hypothesis, scientists use 21st century technology to create ribozymes that serve as catalysts. "But most of those synthetic ribozymes," Carter said, "bear little resemblance to anything anyone has ever isolated from a living system."
Carter, who has been an expert in ancient biochemistry for four decades, took a different approach. His experiments are deeply embedded in consensus biology.
Our genetic code is translated by two super-families of modern-day enzymes. Carter's research team created and superimposed digital three-dimensional versions of the two super-families to see how their structures aligned. Carter found that all the enzymes have virtually identical cores that can be extracted to produce "molecular fossils" he calls Urzymes -- Ur meaning earliest or original. The other parts, he said, are variations that were introduced later, as evolution unfolded.
These two Urzymes are as close as scientists have gotten to the actual ancient enzymes that would have populated Earth billions of years ago.
"Once we identified the core part of the enzyme, we cloned it and expressed it," Carter said. "Then we wanted to see if we could stabilize it and determine if it had any biochemical activity." They could and it did.
Both Urzymes are very good at accelerating the two reactions necessary to translate the genetic code.
"Our results suggest that there were very active protein enzymes very early in the generation of life, before there were organisms," Carter said. "And those enzymes were very much like the Urzymes we've made."
The finding also suggests that Urzymes evolved from even simpler ancestors -- tiny proteins called peptides. And over time those peptides co-evolved with RNA to give rise to more complex life forms.
In this "Peptide-RNA World" scenario, RNA would have contained the instructions for life while peptides would have accelerated key chemical reactions to carry out those instructions.
The first篇：Dickens takes the stage
第二篇：Fritz Pollard Beyond the Gridiron
第三篇：Why we still need mapmkers
第四篇：The art of a cat’s lap
而且，研究人員發現，lapping和貓科動物的質量mass成反比關系，體積越大，lapping越慢。比如，家貓每秒3.5-4次lapping, 而獅子是每秒1.5-2次。因為大體積的貓科動物，舌頭較寬，形成的water column也會重，這時重力會起作用，導致掉落下來。
18道一次函數的題，考察形式和section 非常類似，包括應用題， 圖表題，一元一次函數，二元一次；函數其中斜率的考察屢次出現
科學家培養細菌， 每天的Beginning 都是前一天的beginning數量的兩倍，The first天開始是20個，第六天開始是多少？
比例尺題： 地圖上1inch represent 300feet, 面積是12的地圖，當地圖長寬都增加50%后，1inch 代表多少feet？
line of best fit考了兩道，都以帶圖表的選擇題形式出現。
文章作者是Eric Betz, 選自2015年Los Angeles Times的一篇文章, 名為 “Let There be (Less) Light”, 文章主要探討了夜間光污染的問題. 文章的主旨在題目中的prompt中直接體現: “Cities must reduce light pollution”.
The essay gives you an opportunity to show how effectively you can read and comprehend a passage and write an essay nalyzing the passage. In your essay, you should demonstrate that you have read the passage carefully,present a clear and logical analysis, and use language precisely.Your essay must be written on the lines provided in your answer booklet;except for the Planning Page of the answer booklet, you will receive no other paper on which to write. You will have enough space if you write on every line,avoid wide margins, and keep your handwriting to a reasonable size. Remember that people who are not familiar with your handwriting will read what you write.Try to write or print so that what you are writing is legible to those readers.
1. Do not write your essay in this booklet. Only what you write on the lined pages of your answer booklet will be evaluated.
2. An off-topic essay will not be evaluated.
You have 50 minutes to read the passage and write an essay in response to the prompt provided inside this booklet.
As you read the passage below, consider how Eric Betz uses
? evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.
? reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.
? stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion,to add power to the ideas expressed.
Adapted from Eric Betz, “Let there be (less) light” ?2015 by the Los Angeles Times. Originally published August 16, 2015.
1、Looking out across Los Angeles from Mt. Wilson Observatory at night, the hills and mountains look like islands in a sea of light. It was here that Edwin Hubble first proved our universe was expanding at a rapid pace. From this vantage point you can still make out the major constellations, but drive into the light bubble and suddenly the cosmos feels awfully far away. The city shines so bright it blocks out the stars, a phenomenon known as "skyglow."
2、Light seeps into the sky from stadiums, malls, parking lots, offices and billboards. But streetlights, with their harsh bulbs, are the worst offenders. . . .
3、We intuitively assume that more lights mean less crime. Indeed, police are often taught that, second to more cops, good lighting is the best crime deterrent.
4、Yet decades of research show there's no scientific reason to believe that darker streets are inherently more dangerous. And, increasingly, researchers are finding that excess light is toxic for both humans and wildlife.
5、In one study, published July 28 in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, researchers examined 14 years of data from 62 local authorities across England and Wales, hunting for crime and collision trends among agencies that reduced their lighting.
6、But the health researchers found no link between collisions and lighting despite studying about 14,500 miles of roadways where streetlights were dimmed, lighted for only part of the night or shut off entirely. They also examined lighting's effect on crime and similarly found no increase in burglary, auto theft, robbery, violence or sexual assault in areas where lighting policy had changed.
7、The scientists published a companion study based on surveys of 520 people living in darkened areas. Many residents said they didn't even notice the dimming, let alone feel threatened by an uptick in crime.
8、Other studies back up these results. In 1998, for example, Chicago tried to fight crime with a three-phase plan that included upgrading 175,000 streetlights, as well as lights in transit stations and alleys around the city. The city kept experimental control areas unchanged and found that crime consistently increased in both the well-lighted and the control areas. Illinois criminal justice officials concluded that strolling down a dark alley was no more dangerous than doing so in a well-lighted one.
9、All this should make taxpayers uneasy. Last week, the Cities at Night project released a report estimating that the European Union alone spends about $7 billion annually to power streetlights.
10、But there's something much more troubling than wasted money about losing the night. A growing body of biological research suggests that nighttime lighting messes with the circadian rhythms of humans and other animals, wreaking havoc on everything from sleep patterns to DNA repair.
11、Studies have shown that nighttime light exposure is a risk factor for some cancers, diabetes, heart disease and obesity. As scientists continue to gather evidence, the American Medical Assn. has already recommended that cities reduce light pollution and that people avoid staring at electronic screens after dark.
12 LEDs are of particular concern. Cities around the world are converting from traditional yellow sodium-vapor lamps, which cast their light in a narrow range, to broad-spectrum LED streetlights. Los Angeles has installed 165,000 LEDs in recent years, slashing streetlight energy use by 60% and netting $8 million in energy savings annually.
13、The problem is that these bright lamps increase skyglow by emitting more blue light than the older technology. They also could have unintended effects on wildlife. Artificial lights can disrupt navigation, mating and feeding among the many nocturnal animals that share our cities.
14、A University of Bristol study published this month showed that certain moths can't perform evasive maneuvers against predatory bats under LEDs. And recent research in New Zealand shows some insects are 48% more attracted to the new LEDs than they were to the old-fashioned lights. The researchers worry that widespread use of the new technology will create a "white-light night" that intensifies light pollution's pressure on ecosystems.
15、The psychological loss is less measurable. . . .
16、What happens when people grow up without stars? Do they lose their connection to the cosmos that our ancestors tracked so carefully, night after night?