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如何提升雅思閱讀速度?
2019-08-12 16:32   作者:新航道   閱讀量:

  定期推送與雅思閱讀備考相關的知識點技巧與干貨知識。成功就是日復一日那一點點小小努力的積累。


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  相信不少烤鴨對雅思閱讀的感情是復雜的,因為它常常是助我們拉高總分的小仙女,同時又是磨人的小妖精:文章長,題目多,時間短……行了,別說了,說多了都是淚!


  事實上,一小時內要讀三篇800-900字左右的英語文章,還要做40道題,就算是一個native speaker也很難在這么短的時間內把所有文章看通透啊。


  既然如此,問題來了,雅思閱讀考試的目的,是讓你通讀全文嗎


  答案,顯然是否定的。


  “閱讀”重點考驗的,是提取信息的能力。這種能力,就如同我們讀中文報紙時,即便只是快速的瀏覽,也能找到新聞的要點和想要的內容。


  而細心觀察會發現,讀報紙時,我們會下意識地通過省略掉一些相對不重要的信息,來縮短閱讀的時間。


  而這種“下意識”,并非毫無依據,只是我們沒有察覺。而個中依據,在英語閱讀中也同樣奏效,因為它們實際上都是最基本的“邏輯信號”,只是變成英語之后,我們的感覺沒有那么敏銳而已。


  那么下面,就來看看有哪些基本“邏輯信號”,它們在英語中又是如何表達的:


  1.因果關系,重點看“果”

  在文章當中,“因為”引導的內容,往往是一段陳述或鋪墊,“所以”引導的內容,才是結論和總結。所以速覽時,我們可以暫且把“原因”的部分略過,先看“結果”的部分,從而減省把握文章重點的時間。

  引出“原因”的常用表達:because, because of, as a result of, result of, due to, thanks to, owing to, since, for, grateful for等,如:

  “Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another.”

  (劍橋雅思真題6, Test 3, Reading Passage 2)

  “Since”所在的前半句是原因,關鍵看后半句的結果(結論)。

  引出“結果”的常用表達:so, therefore, hence, thus, result in, lead to, consequently, as a result等,如:

  “Such findings suggest that one person’s equity is another’s inequity, so an ideal should probably weigh different inputs and outcomes according to employee group.”

  (劍橋雅思真題6, Test 3, Reading Passage 2) :重點看“so”所在的后半句;

  “Speech is often unclear and ambiguous. Where possible,therefore, the recording has to be supplemented by the observer’s written comments on the non-verbal behaviours of the participants, and about the context in general.”

  (劍橋雅思真題4, Test 3, Reading Passage 3):重點看“therefore”所在的第二句。


  2.轉折關系,忽略“讓步”,看“但是”

  “讓步”的內容再豪華,都敵不過一個“但是”。這個道理很顯淺,就不多作解釋了。而快速瀏覽文章時,我們就可以暫且只看“轉折”部分的內容。反之,遇到“讓步”的內容,我們則可暫時忽略不看。

  (1)常見表“轉折”的說法

  常見表“轉折”的說法還有:but,however,nevertheless,yet,nonetheless等,如:

  “Down the centuries, thousands of wells were constructed throughout northwestern India, but the majority have now fallen into disuse…”

  (劍橋雅思真題10, Test 1, Reading Passage 1) :無論前面說了什么,也改變不了“the majority (of wells)”被棄用的現實。重點顯然在轉折詞“but”之后。

  (2)引導“讓步”的常用說法

  引導“讓步”的常用說法有:whereas,although,though,while,whereas,despite,in spite of,for all等,如:

  “Whereasmost exercises are designed to build up strength or endurance, plyometrics focuses on increasing power – the rate at which an athlete can expend energy.”

  (劍橋雅思真題4, Test 4, Reading Passage 1) “whereas”所在的半句為讓步狀語從句,重點看另一個半句(轉折的內容)。

  3.遞進關系,看“后面”

  所謂遞進,即前后保持一致意見的情況下,后者在態度和語氣上更進一步。故,讀懂后者,即可得知前者。速覽文章時,重點先讀遞進后面的內容。

  常見表達“遞進”的說法有:furthermore,moreover,not only…but also…,in addition等,如:

  “The psychiatrists felt that ‘most subjects would not go beyond 150 volts’ and they further anticipated that only four per cent would go up to 300 volts. Furthermore, they thought that only a lunatic fringe of about one in 1,000 would give the highest shock of 450 volts. ”

  (劍橋雅思真題5, Test 1, Reading Passage 2) 即便不讀前面的句子,光靠“Furthermore”后面遞進的內容也可知,精神病學家預測:會執行高伏電擊的人是少之又少的。


  4.借助“承上、啟下”的句子,找段落重點

  承上: 以“代詞”“所以”為開頭的段落首句,一般都是承接或總結上一段話的內容。借助這樣的句子,可以得知上一段話的內容重點。如:

  “代詞”開頭:

  “These research findings are exciting. There is growing evidence in New Zealand that…”

  (劍橋雅思真題5, Test 3, Reading Passage 1) 這是文中最后一段的開頭。

  從首句的代詞“These”可知,首句是對上一段內容的承接,并可知上一段講述的是一些“exciting research findings”。

  “所以”開頭:

  “Thus ageing and death should not be seen as inevitable, particularly as the organism possesses many mechanisms for repair. It is not, in principle, necessary for a biological system…”

  (劍橋雅思真題8, Test 3, Reading Passage 3) 從段落首句的“Thus”可知,首句是對上一段內容的承接,而并非本段內容的重點。

  啟下:“問句”和“量詞+復數詞”通常是引出下文,通過它們能了解所在段落或緊隨其后的段落的內容重點。如:

  “問句”: “What were the actual results? (借此問句可知本段的重點是“actual results”)Well, over 60 per cent of the teacher-subjects continued to obey Milgram up to the 450-volt limit in repetitions of the experiment in other countries, the percentage of obedient teacher-subjects was even higher, reaching 85 per cent in one country. How can we possibly account for this vast discrepancy between what calm, rational, knowledgeable people predict in the comfort of their study and what pressured, flustered, but cooperative ‘teachers’ actually do in the laboratory of real life?

  (最后的問句揭示,后面段落的重點內容是解釋“this vast discrepancy”的原因)” (劍橋雅思真題5, Test 1, Reading Passage 2)

  “量詞+復數詞”:“Yet opinion polls suggest that many people nurture the belief that environmental standards are declining andfour factors seem to cause this disjunction between perception and reality.”

  (劍橋雅思真題5, Test 1, Reading Passage 3) “four factors”告訴我們,接下來的段落中,重點應該是關于這四種因素的描述。


  5.遇到“what”時請細看

  “what”經常用作表目的或具總結性的句子的開頭,因此,遇到what開頭的句子要多看兩眼,如:

  “…If the subject was still reluctant to proceed, Milgram said that it was important for the sake of the experiment that the procedure be followed through to the end. His final argument was ‘you have no other choice. You must go on’. What Milgram was trying to discover was the number of teacher-subjects who would be willing to administer the highest levels of shock, even in the face of strong personal and moral revulsion against the rules and conditions of the experiment.”

  (劍橋雅思真題5, Test 1, Reading Passage 2) 原文中,此段很長,但全部都只是屬于一次實驗過程的描述。最后才以“what”為開頭的句子,總結性地道出了實驗的目的,使得此句成為全段重點。

  以上五個方法你都get了嗎?

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