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英語作文怎么寫?
2019-08-14 15:20   作者:新航道   閱讀量:

  作文是許多考生最大的痛 ,寫滿字數就不錯了,竟然還要有中心句和支撐句,中心句是什么?支撐句,要怎么支撐啊,支撐方式可不是大家常用的一句話反復說,這不是重要的事情說三遍哦!那么我們怎么解決令我們頭大的中心句的和支撐句的問題呢?不多說,一個字,“練”。



  首先針對主旨句進行練習,那是不是我們寫個一句話放在第一句,這個段落就有主旨句了,答案當然是NO!

  主旨句也是有要求的,我們先來看看主旨句的三大要求:

  1. A topic sentence is a complete sentence.

  2. A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea.

  3. A topic sentence is the most general statement in the paragraph.

  初期練習,大家可以利用閱讀材料或者作文范文。

  練習方法只要三步就可以搞定了

  Step 1:可以把看過的文章的主旨句遮起來,比如留學預備三級第一單元的reading1:

  Step 2自己來寫主旨句,這里要注意上述提到的主旨句的要求,那我們可以看到這個段落中,topic是food, controlling idea是significance in new year,所以這句我們的主旨句可以是food is important in new year.

  Step 3 檢查自己的主旨句

  a. 是否符合主旨句的要求,比對1.2.3打勾

  b. 再對比原文主旨句,food also plays an important role in many new year celebrations,看看有什么需要改進的地方,我們就是用了important來表示play an important role in.

  好不容易主旨句寫完了,終于開始寫后面的句子,這個時候大家又開始想到哪,寫到哪了吧,反正本著湊字數的原則,這段字數太少,我就再寫點別的。考官可沒有辛苦分給你哦,那一個合理的段落結構是怎么樣的,又如何支撐主旨句呢,下面這個練習,就可以解決這兩個問題啦。

  我們首先選擇一個清晰的論證的段落結構,然后分析段落中每句話的作用

  比如留學預備三級讀寫課本U6 reading 2:Fame and fortune do not always have a positive impact on an individual’s life.  (這句是topic sentence)

  Many careers in the spotlight are short-lived. (這句把not positive 到short-lived具體化)


  For example, many athletes’ physical peak only lasts a few years, and singers can have a very limited career. The field that was once the sole focus of their lives becomes something they have little or no involvement in. (這兩句是舉例來支撐)

  As a result, they have a feeling of worthlessness and a complete lack of control. It can also be difficult for them to adapt back to a normal everyday life because they have been so far removed from it for so long. (這句是拓展結果來支撐)

  所以我們可以發現支撐方式有具體化,舉例和拓展結果,段落結構為中心句-具體化-舉例-拓展結果。看完一遍,大家往往印象不深啊,再看一遍又很無聊。

  這時候我們可以做排序練習。

  首先把段落中的句子打亂順序,比如:For example, many athletes’ physical peak only lasts a few years, and singers can have a very limited career. Fame and fortune do not always have a positive impact on an individual’s life. As a result, they have a feeling of worthlessness and a complete lack of control. Many careers in the spotlight are short-lived. The field that was once the sole focus of their lives becomes something they have little or no involvement in. It can also be difficult for them to adapt back to a normal everyday life because they have been so far removed from it for so long.

  過兩天,我們給打亂后的句子排序,這樣我們可以加深對段落結構的了解,記憶深刻,之后自己也可以采用同樣的段落結構啦。

  寫作時,大家是不是會遇到這樣的問題:感覺看到作文題目想不到觀點,想到的分論點又不適合自己的中心論點。這個問題,我們也可以通過反向思維導圖的練習來解決。

  比如我們遇到這樣一道托福作文題目:

  People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

  我們可以看其范文:People attend colleges or universities for a lot of different reasons. Career preparation is becoming more and more important to young people. For many, this is the primary reason to go to college, They know that the job market is competitive. At college, they can learn new skill for careers with a lot of opportunities. This means careers, such as information technology, that are expected to need a large workforce in the coming years.

  Also, students go to colleges and universities to have new experiences. This often means having the opportunity to meet people different from those in their hometowns. For most students, going to college is the first time they’ve been away from home by themselves. In additions, this is the first time they’ve had to make decisions on their own. Making these decisions increases their knowledge of themselves.

  Besides looking for self-knowledge, people also attend a university or college to expand their knowledge in subjects they find interesting. For many, this will be their last chance for a long time to learn about something that doesn’t relate to their career.

  I would recommend that people not be so focused on a career. They should go to college to have new experiences and learn about themselves and the world they live in.

  那拿到這段范文我們要做什么呢,把不會的單詞查一查,把詞組記一記,就結束了嗎,遠遠不夠。

  我們還需要提煉文章的中心論點和分論點,寫在紙上,這篇范文中,中心論點是人們應該上大學,分論點是職業準備越來越重要,擁有新的經歷,擴展感興趣領域的知識。寫在紙上確實可以幫助我們知道這些觀點,但是大家是不是發現自己忘記的很快,明明看過相關的話題,怎么還是沒有合適的分論點。這個時候我們就需要做第二步了,我們需要做的是把這些論點打亂,比如

  職業準備越來越重要,人們應該上大學,擁有新的經歷,擴展感興趣領域的知識,把這些論點寫在一張紙上,過幾天以后,按照圖示結構,還原位置。

  大家可以經常做這樣的練習,既可以更好的積累觀點,又可以幫助自己更好的區分分論點和中心論點,理清自己的寫作意圖。

  素材的來源也很多,除了上面的托福范文或者雅思范文意外,我們的課本還有外刊文章比如經濟學人,都是很好的來源。

  通過上述練習,大家一定可以寫出結構更清晰合理的段落,想要提高寫作水平非一日之功,大家多多練習吧。


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